Selasa, 19 Maret 2013

Top 10 Amazing Earth Facts

As well known and well traveled as our planet is, there are still new things being discovered every day. In fact, most of our oceans haven’t even been explored yet which is why when new depths are located; they often come with hundreds of new species. Rain forests offer up new animals and plants as often as we can explore them. The Earth is constantly changing, shifting, and exposing new secrets for humans to marvel at. It took many years and many great minds to solve the problem of getting through Earth’s atmosphere into the wide expanse of space beyond. Here are ten amazing facts about our home that you may not be aware of.
10. The Atmosphere Earths-Atmosphere
Many layers of atmosphere coat our planet including the mesosphere, ionosphere, exosphere, and the thermosphere, but it’s the troposphere, closest to the planet itself, that supports our lives and is, in fact, the thinnest at only about 10 miles high.

9. Deserts
Believe it or not, most of the Earth’s deserts are not composed entirely of sand. Much, about 85% of them, are rocks and gravel. The largest, the Sahara, fills about 1/3 of Africa (and it is growing constantly) which would nearly fill the continental United States.

8. The Big Blue Marble Oblate Spheroid
The Earth is, in fact, not really round. It is called an oblate spheroid meaning it’s slightly flattened on the top and bottom poles.
7. Salty Oceans
If you could evaporate all the water out of all the oceans and spread the resulting salt over all the land on Earth, you would have a five hundred-foot layer coating everything.
6. Lakes and Seas
The largest inland sea (or, sometimes called a lake) is the Caspian Sea which is on the border of Iran and Russia.

5. Mountains Andes
The Andes Mountain range in South America is 4,525 miles long and ranks, as the world’s longest. Second Longest: The Rockies; Third: Himalayas; Fourth: The Great Dividing Range in Australia; Fifth: Trans-Antarctic Mountains. For every 980 feet you climb up a mountain, the temperature drops 3-1/2 degrees.
4. Deep Water
The deepest lake in the world is in the former USSR and it is Lake Baikal. It has a length of 400 miles, a width of roughly 30, but its depth is just over a mile: 5,371 feet down. It is deep enough, so is speculated, that all five of the next largest lakes: The Great Lakes could be emptied into it.
3. Shaky Ground
Earthquakes can be catastrophically destructive and many a year are deadly. However, the Earth releases about 1 million a year, almost all are never even registered.
2. Hot, Hot, Hot
Most people believe that Death Valley, California, U.S.A. is the hottest place on Earth. Well, occasionally it is, but the hottest recorded temperature was from Azizia in Libya recording a temperature of 136 degrees Fahrenheit (57.8 Celsius) on Sept. 13, 1922. In Death Valley, it got up to 134 Fahrenheit on July 10, 1913.
1. Dust in the Wind
Space Dust
Experts from the USGS claim that roughly 1,000 tons of space debris rains down on Earth every year.

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Rabu, 13 Maret 2013

10 Notable Numbers

Numbers effect most aspects of our lives daily. This is a list of 10 notable numbers.
10. -273.15 Absolutezero
This is the temperature (in centigrade) known as absolute zero (0 Kelvin) which describes a theoretical system that neither emits nor absorbs energy. It is the point at which particles have a minimum energy, determined by quantum mechanical effects, which is called the zero-point energy. Absolute zero is also precisely equivalent to 0 °R on the Rankine scale (also a thermodynamic temperature scale), and –459.67 °F on the Fahrenheit scale. It is not possible to cool any substance to 0 K, but scientists have made great advancements in achieving temperatures close to absolute zero, where matter exhibits odd quantum effects such as superconductivity and superfluidity.
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9. 31337
If you don’t know what this one means, the number does not apply to you. If you are not 31337 and want to know how to become 31337, Wikipedia has a good article on it here.

8. -40 18B7D1Abc6E76680Ca74A81492857E41
This number is unique in temperature readings; it is unique because -40 is the only point at which the fahrenheit and centigrade scales meet. -40F is the same as -40C.
7. 3888
This is the largest number representable with standard Roman numeral notation. In Roman numerals it appears: MMMDCCCLXXXVIII.
6. 666
666 is most famous as the number of the beast in the biblical book of the Apocalypse. It is also the former number of Route 491, a brand of cough syrup, and forms part of the name of 666 Desdemona, a minor planet in the asteroid belt. A person with a fear of this number has hexakosioihexekontahexaphobia.
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5. 911 Dfp 500Telephone
Before the terrorist attacks on the US, this number was also attached to a type of porsche and a trojan asteroid that orbits the sun. It is, of course, also the US, Canadian, and Argentinean emergency services telephone number.
4. Graham’s Number
Graham’s number is the largest number that has been used in a serious mathematical proof. It is too large to be written in scientific notation and is much larger than a googol, googolplex, and is even larger than Moser’s number, another very large number. Using Knuth’s up-arrow notation, Graham’s Number (G) can be depicted as in the image above.
3. e
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The number e, sometimes called Euler’s number or Napier’s constant, is one of the most important numbers in mathematics. Bernoulli discovered this number when studying a problem of compounding interest. Simply put, an account that starts at $1, and yields (1+R) dollars at simple interest, will yield eR dollars with continuous compounding. The number e itself also has applications to probability theory, where it arises in a way not obviously related to exponential growth. Suppose that a gambler plays a slot machine with a one in n probability and plays it n times. Then, for large n (such as a million) the probability that the gambler will win nothing at all is (approximately) 1/e. e looks like this to 20 decimal places: 2.71828 18284 59045 23536…
2. Pi
Pi or ? is the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter in Euclidean geometry, approximately 3.14159. Pi is a mathematical constant and a transcendental (and therefore irrational) real number, with many uses in mathematics, physics, and engineering. It is also known as Archimedes’ constant.
1. 1.6180339887
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This is the Golden Ratio. In mathematics and the arts, two quantities are in the golden ratio if the ratio between the sum of those quantities and the larger one is the same as the ratio between the larger one and the smaller. The golden ratio is approximately 1.6180339887. At least since the Renaissance, many artists and architects have proportioned their works to approximate the golden ratio—especially in the form of the golden rectangle, in which the ratio of the longer side to the shorter is the golden ratio—believing this proportion to be aesthetically pleasing. Mathematicians have studied the golden ratio because of its unique and interesting properties.
This article is licensed under the GFDL. It uses material from the Wikipedia articles: Napier’s Constant, Absolute Zero, Graham’s Number, Pi, and Golden Ratio.

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Selasa, 12 Maret 2013

7 New Wonders in Breathtaking Photographs

The New Seven Wonders of the World is a contemporary attempt to create an alternative to historical lists of the Seven Wonders of the World. This final list of seven was selected by internet users – the organization managing the vote say that over 100 million votes were counted – though people could vote more than once. Click the images to view them at their best.
1. Taj Mahal, India
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Photograph By: micbaun [more…]
The Tah Mahal is a mausoleum complex in Agra, northern India, on the southern bank of the Yamuna (Jumna) River. In its harmonious proportions and its fluid incorporation of decorative elements, the Taj Mahal is distinguished as the finest example of Mughal architecture, a blending of Indian, Persian, and Islamic styles.
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2. Colosseum, Rome
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Photograph By: Will Hybrid [more…]
Construction of the Colosseum was begun sometime between AD 70 and 72 during the reign of Vespasian; the structure was officially dedicated in AD 80 by Titus in a ceremony that included 100 days of games. The Colosseum is a freestanding structure of stone and concrete, measuring 620 by 513 feet (190 by 155 metres) overall and seating some 50,000 spectators. It was the scene of thousands of hand-to-hand combats between gladiators, of contests between men and animals.
3. The Great Wall, China
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Photograph By: Charlie81 [more…]
The Great Wall is a series of sandstone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th century to protect the northern borders of the Chinese Empire during the rule of successive dynasties. Several walls, referred to as the Great Wall of China, were built since the 5th century BC, the most famous being the one built between 220 BC and 200 BC by the first Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang.
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4. Petra, Jordan
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Photograph By: Taras Kalapun [more…]
Petra is an ancient city, centre of an Arab kingdom in Hellenistic and Roman times; its ruins are in southwest Jordan. The city was built on a terrace, pierced from east to west by the Wadi Musa (the Valley of Moses)—one of the places where, according to tradition, the Israelite leader Moses struck a rock and water gushed forth. The valley is enclosed by sandstone cliffs veined with shades of red and purple varying to pale yellow, and for this reason Petra was called by the 19th-century English biblical scholar John William Burgon a “rose-red city half as old as Time.”
5. Machu Picchu, Peru
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Photograph By: hazelbrae [more…]
Machu Pichu is a pre-Columbian Inca city located at 2,430 m (7,970 ft) altitude on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru, about 70 km (44 mi) northwest of Cusco. Machu Picchu is probably the most familiar symbol of the Inca Empire. It is often referred to as “The Lost City of the Incas”. The site was designated as a World Heritage Site in 1983 when it was described as “an absolute masterpiece of architecture and a unique testimony to the Inca civilization”
6. Christ the Redeemer, Brazil
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Photograph By: Pawel Z [more…]
Christ the Redeemer is a statue of Jesus Christ in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The statue stands 39.6 metres (130 feet) tall, weighs 700 tons and is located at the peak of the 700-m (2296-foot) Corcovado mountain in the Tijuca Forest National Park overlooking the city.
7. Chichen Itza, Mexico
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Photograph By: itzamnavacmitun [more…]
Chichen Itza is a ruined ancient Maya city occupying an area of 4 square miles (10 square km) in south-central Yucatán state, Mexico. It is located some 90 miles (150 km) east-northeast of Uxmal and 75 miles (120 km) east-southeast of the modern city of Mérida. The only source of water in the arid region around the site is from wells (cenotes) formed by sinkholes in limestone formations.

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Jumat, 08 Maret 2013

10 Rare Cloud Formations

This is a list of what I believe to be the top 10 rarest cloud formations. And a brief description of each. No particular order in how ‘rare’ they are though.
1. Nacreous Clouds
These rare clouds, sometimes called mother-of-pearl clouds, are 15 – 25km (9 -16 miles) high in the stratosphere and well above tropospheric clouds. They have iridescent colours but are higher and much rarer than ordinary iridescent clouds. They are seen mostly but not exclusively in polar regions and in winter at high latitudes, Scandinavia, Alaska, Northern Canada. Lower level iridescent clouds can be seen anywhere.
Nacreous clouds shine brightly in high altitude sunlight up to two hours after ground level sunset or before dawn. Their unbelievably bright iridescent colours and slow movement relative to any lower clouds make them an unmistakable and unforgettable sight.

2. Mammatus Clouds
Mammatus are pouch-like cloud structures and a rare example of clouds in sinking air. Sometimes very ominous in appearance, mammatus clouds are harmless and do not mean that a tornado is about to form – a commonly held misconception. In fact, mammatus are usually seen after the worst of a thunderstorm has passed.
3. Altocumulus Castelanus
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Also known as jellyfish clouds due to their jellyfish-like appearance. These formed around 17,000 ft due to when the rush of moist air comes from the Gulf Stream and gets trapped between layers of dry air. The top of the cloud rises into a jellyfish shape and long tentacles known as “trailing virga” form from rain drops that have evaporated.
4. Noctilucent Clouds
Noctilucent Clouds or Polar Mesopheric Clouds: This is an extroadinarily rare cloud formation that occurs out on the verge of space between 82km to 102 km from the earth’s surface. Noctilucent clouds appear to be luminous yet they reflect the sunlight from the other side of the earth at night, giving them a glowing appearance
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5. Mushroom Clouds 05-800Px-Mountredoubteruption
A mushroom cloud is a distinctive mushroom-shaped cloud of smoke, condensed water vapor, or debris resulting from a very large explosion. They are most commonly associated with nuclear explosions, but any sufficiently large blast will produce the same sort of effect. Volcano eruptions and impact events can produce natural mushroom clouds.
Mushroom clouds form as a result of the sudden formation of a large mass of hot low-density gases near the ground creating a Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The mass of gas rises rapidly, resulting in turbulent vortices curling downward around its edges and drawing up a column of additional smoke and debris in the center to form its “stem”. The mass of gas eventually reaches an altitude where it is no longer less dense than the surrounding air and disperses, the debris drawn upward from the ground scattering and drifting back down (see fallout).
6. Cirrus Kelvin-Helmholtz
Appearing as a slender, horizontal spiral of cloud, cirrus Kelvin-Helmholtz is one of the most distinctive cloud formations. However, it tends to dissipate only a minute or two after forming and, as a result, is rarely observed.
Average height is around 16,500 ft.
7. Lenticular Clouds
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Lenticular clouds, technically known as altocumulus standing lenticularis, are stationary lens-shaped clouds that form at high altitudes, normally aligned at right-angles to the wind direction.
Where stable moist air flows over a mountain or a range of mountains, a series of large-scale standing waves may form on the downwind side. Lenticular clouds sometimes form at the crests of these waves. Under certain conditions, long strings of lenticular clouds can form, creating a formation known as a wave cloud.

8. Roll Clouds 08-800Px-Roll-Cloud-Racine
A roll cloud is a low, horizontal tube-shaped arcus cloud associated with a thunderstorm gust front, or sometimes a cold front. Roll clouds can also be a sign of possible microburst activity. Cool air sinking air from a storm cloud’s downdraft spreads out across the surface with the leading edge called a gust front. This outflow undercuts warm air being drawn into the storm’s updraft. As the cool air lifts the warm moist air water condenses creating cloud, which often rolls with the different winds above and below (wind shear).
9. Shelf Clouds
A shelf cloud is a low, horizontal wedge-shaped arcus cloud, associated with a thunderstorm gust front (or occasionally with a cold front, even in the absence of thunderstorms). Unlike a roll cloud, a shelf cloud is attached to the base of the parent cloud above it (usually a thunderstorm). Rising cloud motion often can be seen in the leading (outer) part of the shelf cloud, while the underside often appears turbulent, boiling, and wind-torn.
10. Stratocumulus Clouds 10-Cloud Streets
According to the Sapporo Meteorological Observatory, these low-altitude stratocumulus clouds were rolled into long, distinctive ribbons after becoming trapped in air currents. While it is not uncommon for wind to form such patterns in stratocumulus clouds, photos that clearly show the clouds rolled into strips are rare, says the observatory.

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Top 10 Scientists who Committed Suicide

So often, in the field of the arts and sciences, the greatest minds live tortured lives. In many cases this has lead to self-murder. This is a list of the ten greatest scientist suicides.
10. Viktor Meyer Meyer
Viktor Meyer was a German chemist and significant contributor to both organic and inorganic chemistry. Born in Berlin in 1848, he is best known for inventing an apparatus to measure vapour densities, the Viktor Meyer apparatus, and for discovering thiophene.
A hugely gifted chemist, Meyer was a workaholic whose taxing lifestyle took tolls on his nervous system. After a series of mental breakdowns, he killed himself by taking cyanide in 1897, at the age of 49.
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9. David Kelly
David Christopher Kelly was an employee of the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence (MoD), an expert in biological warfare and a former United Nations weapons inspector in Iraq.
His doubts about the veracity of the WMD dossier compiled by the Blair Government caused a political scandal, and he was forced to attend a Parliamentary committee hearing about the remarks. A modest man, David Kelly was savagely grilled by the Committee, and spoke in a voice so soft that the air conditioning had to be turned off so that his words could be heard.
On July 17th 2003, Kelly went on his daily walk through the Oxfordshire country, and, according to the official report, swallowed up to 29 painkillers and slashed his wrist.
However, many figures, including MPs and paramedics, continue to raise doubts over the exact cause of Kelly’s death, with some going to so far as to say it was murder.

8. Ludwig Boltzmann Boltzmann
Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann was an Austrian physicist famous for his founding contributions in the fields of statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics. He was one of the most important advocates for atomic theory when that scientific model was still highly controversial.
Born in Vienna, February 20th 1844, Boltzmann attended the University of Vienna, gaining a PhD degree at age 22, and becoming Professor of Mathematical Physics at the University of Graz at age 25. In 1893, he achieved his goal of becoming Professor of Theoretical Physics at the University of Vienna, succeeding his old mentor, Joseph Stefan.
Most likely suffering from bipolar disorder, Boltzmann took his own life while on holiday with his family. He is buried in Vienna in a tombstone that reads S=k*logW.
7. Valeri Legasov
Valeri Alekseevich Legasov was a prominent Soviet scientist in the field of inorganic chemistry, a member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. He is most famous for his work as the chief of the investigation committee of the Chernobyl disaster on April 26th 1986.
After the Chernobyl disaster, Legasov became a key member of the government commission formed to investigate the causes of the catastrophe and to plan the liquidation of its consequences. In August, 1986 he presented the report of the Soviet delegation at the special meeting of International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna. His report struck the Western colleagues with the depth of analysis and full honesty in discussing the extent and consequences of the tragedy.
Legasov’s open and firm stance, however, caused a lot of trouble for him at home: the Soviet government was very uncomfortable with the frankness and rigor of his position. As a result, when in 1986-1987 his name was twice entered into the list for those to be awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor in recognition for his work, both times it was rejected: the second time his name was crossed out by Gorbachev himself.
Having exposed himself to the radiation on the ground of Chernobyl, Legasov’s health began to rapidly deteriorate, which coupled with his depression over his lack of recognition, led him to take his own life on April 27th 1988.
On September 20, 1996 Russian President Boris Yeltsin conferred to Legasov the honorary title of Hero of the Russian Federation (posthumously) for his “courage and heroism” shown in the course of the liquidation of the after-effects of Chernobyl disaster.
6. Hans Berger
Hans Berger, born in Neuses, Germany in 1873, is best known as the first person to record electroencephalograms (EEGs) from human subjects and is the discoverer of the rhythmic Alpha brain waves.
Berger studied medicine, neurology, psychiatry and psychology at the University of Jena. He concentrated on neurology, and following the pioneering work done by British scientist Richard Caton on animals, successfully recorded the first EEG from a human in 1924. This allowed him to discover the alpha wave and described, for the first time, the effect epilepsy had on the brain.
Disturbed by the rise of Nazism and the effects of the Second World War, Berger hanged himself on June 1st 1941.
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5. Edwin Armstrong Armstrong
Edwin Armstrong, born on December 18th 1890, was an American electrical engineer, who invented FM radio. He first began work on the idea of FM radio at university, and patented his idea in 1914.
However numerous patent disputes, and a blocking attempt by the Radio Corporation of America, who thought it would destroy AM radio, halted its advancement.
Determined that FM radio would never succeed, Armstrong jumped from the 13th floor of his apartment in 1954. He was 63 at the time.
4. Nicolas Leblanc
Nicolas Leblanc was a French chemist and surgeon, famed for being the first person to manufacture soda from common salt.
Born in 1742, Leblanc developed an interest in medicine at a young age and enrolled in the Paris College of Surgeons in 1759. In 1780, he became private physician to the household of Louis Philip II, Duke of Orleans.
In 1775, the French Academy of Sciences offered a prize for a process whereby soda ash could be produced from salt. The French Academy wanted to promote the production of much-needed sodium carbonate from inexpensive sodium chloride. By 1791, Nicolas Leblanc had succeeded in producing sodium carbonate from salt by a 2-step process. The prize was awarded to Nicolas Leblanc for a process which used sea salt and sulphuric acid as the raw materials. Later, a plant of his own was in operation producing 320 tons of soda ash per year.
Two years later the plant was confiscated by the French revolutionary government, which refused to pay him the prize money he had earned ten years earlier.
In 1802, Napoleon returned the plant (but not the prize money) to him, but by then Leblanc was so broke he could not afford to run it. He killed himself in 1806.
3. George Eastman
George Eastman, born in Waterville, New York in 1854, founded the Eastman Kodak Company and invented roll film, helping to bring photography to the mainstream, and setting the seeds for the invention of motion picture film in 1888.
In 1874, Eastman became intrigued with photography, but was frustrated by the awkward method that required coating a glass plate with a liquid emulsion that had to be used before it dried. In 1884, he patented a photographic medium that replaced fragile glass plates with a photo-emulsion coated on paper rolls. The invention of roll film greatly speeded up the process of recording multiple images. On September 4th 1888 Eastman registered the trademark Kodak.
In 1932, Eastman committed suicide, leaving a note that read, “My work is done. Why wait?” He is buried in Rochester, New York.
2. Wallace Carothers
Wallace Hume Carothers was an American chemist, credited with the invention of Nylon.
Carothers was a group leader in DuPont’s Experimental Station laboratory, near Wilmington, Delaware, where most polymer research was done. In addition to first developing nylon, also helped lay the groundwork for Neoprene. After receiving his Ph.D, he taught at several universities before he was hired by the DuPont Company to work on fundamental research.
After his monumental discovery, Carothers suffered depression stemming from ‘inventor’s block’, which coupled with the sudden death of his sister, caused him to take his own life by poisoning in 1937. He was 41 at the time.
1. Alan Turing
Alan Turing was an English scientist, mathematician, logician, and cryptographer, and arguably the greatest British scientist of the 20th century.
Often considered to be the father of modern computer science, Turing provided an influential formalisation of the concept of the algorithm and computation with the Turing machine. With the Turing test, he made a significant and characteristically provocative contribution to the debate regarding artificial intelligence: whether it will ever be possible to say that a machine is conscious and can think. He later worked at the National Physical Laboratory, creating one of the first designs for a stored-program computer, although it was never actually built. In 1948 he moved to the University of Manchester to work on the Manchester Mark I, then emerging as one of the world’s earliest true computers.
During the Second World War Turing worked at Bletchley Park, Britain’s code-breaking centre, and was for a time head of Hut 8, the section responsible for German naval cryptanalysis. He was largely responsible for the breaking of the German Enigma code.
In 1952, he was convicted of ‘Acts of Gross Indecency’, after admitting a sexual relationship with another man. He was given a choice between 18 months prison time (which considering his crime, was not exactly wise), or chemical castration, which included side effects such as breast enlargement. He chose the latter.
On the 8th June 1954, unable to endure the humiliation and pain of his punishment, Turing took his own life by eating an apple laced with cyanide. Despite this, it would take another 13 years for homosexuality to be decriminalised in the Britain.

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Senin, 04 Maret 2013

Top 10 Tips to Improve your Memory

Virtually every day we are required to remember a name, a face, a number, or some other piece of information. For many people it is a struggle. It no longer needs to be so – here is a list of ten great tips to improving your memory.
1. Patterns
An excellent way to remember a large number or phrase, is to look for patterns. Here is a simple example:
The number appears to be random until you realize that it is following a pattern: add 5, then add 2, repeat. Once you know the pattern, you only need to remember the first number in the sequence. This can be a useful way to create a numeric password that changes regularly. Another way to use this system is to remember the numbers in the form of a numerical keyboard. You can use your spatial awareness to remember the number rather than just blind memorizing.

2. Associations
This is an excellent method for memorizing numbers. In this system, you associate portions of the number with a word that has some relation to it. For example:
Split the number up and make an association for each sequence. Doing so can give us a list like this: Jumbo Jet (747), XBox (360), Deck of Cards (52), James Bond (007), Days in the year (365). This method can again be used for passwords that are easy to remember. To help you remember your images, try to imagine a scene that incorporates all of the items. For example, you may see a calendar with a photograph of James Bond playing poker on his XBox on a private 747. Sounds weird, but it works.
3. Alphabetize
We are all very familiar with the system of alphabetization – we see it every day in phone books, online directories, and a variety of other places. If you have a list of words to remember, put them into alphabetical order. If you wanted to learn a very long list – such as the States of the USA, start with one state per letter. Once you have that memorized, go back and add another state for each letter. Repeat until the whole list is stored in your mind. You would be surprised how much more effective this is than just trying to remember the whole list in one go.
4. Categorize
In a way, alphabetizing is categorizing, but with this method you can go a lot further. If you have a big list of things to remember, you can find similarities and group them. For example a shopping list:
Apples, Shampoo, Cheese, Milk, Sugar, Bananas, Soap, Coconut, Flour
Now, reorder them into categories and we have this:
Fruit: Apples, Bananas
Dried Goods: Coconut, Sugar, Flour
Dairy: Milk, Cheese
Bathroom: Shampoo, Soap
Another great way to remember your categories (especially in the case of a shopping list) is to remember your categories in the order that they are found in the supermarket. For example, if your first aisle is Fruit, remember the fruit first and think of the fruit aisle while you are doing so.
5. Chunking
Chunking is such a useful method of remembering things that we all use it every day. The best example is telephone numbers. When we are told a phone number we have to remember we chunk it up – usually into area code – 3 digits – four digits. This is not out of conformity – it is because it is the most effective way to remember such random numbers. This is also an excellent way to remember long sequences like pi to n digits. Taking just four extra digits a day you can easily remember pi to many decimal places. Great for a party trick.

6. Images
This is the most effective way to remember a person’s name. If you meet John Key, imagine his face with a big key right in the center of his face. If you meet someone called Patty Grant, you can try to remember a meat patty wrapped in wads of cash. I will leave it up to your own imagination if you meet Bob Johnson. Another way to do this is to find an association between this person and someone else you know – imagine them shaking hands or standing next to each other.
7. Visualize
This is a very ancient technique of memorization called Loci. In this method you imagine a location (something easy like your home) and you place the objects you need to remember in to a different part of the room. The famous Cicero had this to say:
“One must employ a large number of places which must be well-lighted, clearly set out in order, at moderate intervals apart, and images which are active, which are sharply defined, unusual, and which have the power of speedily encountering and penetrating the mind.”
For example, if you need to remember a list of vegetables, put each vegetable in a different place in the room. When you need to recall the list, move in your mind through each location in the room and see what you put there. If you find this one especially helpful, you can expand on it by adding additional floors to your location.
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8. Story Method
This one can be very fun. Make up a story and include all of the things you need to remember in it. The story can be totally ridiculous. Let’s say you need to remember to buy a bucket, a dozen apples, a hairbrush, and some kitty litter, you might make a story like this:
After Jane emptied the kitty litter from Felix’s dirtbox in to the red bucket, she gave him a good brushing with his new hairbrush while she ate an apple for lunch.
It is not the most thrilling or original story, but it can be very effective in helping you to remember your list.
Cov Memory
9. Mnemonics
A mnemonic is a word or short phrase that you can use to remember something because it is like a key to the rest of the information. For example, if you learned music as a child, you probably remember the phrase: “every good boy deserves fruit” – each word stands for a note on the musical staff – EGBDF. No doubt you were also taught a mnemonic to remember the colors of the rainbow as well.
Another slight variation is to use a phrase: desert and dessert: the sweet one has two sugars. We also use this to remember daylight savings time: Spring forward, fall back.
10. Senses
If you have to remember a word, try remembering it with your other senses. For example, if you have to remember to buy soap, try to conjure up an image of soap and whilst doing so, imagine what it smells like. You can also use your other senses in the same way: to remember to buy an alarm clock, remember the sound it makes when it goes off in the morning.
All of the items on this list can be used on their own, or in conjunction with the others to help you improve your memory. The more you practice these tips, the better you will become.

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